Sunday, January 26, 2020
Co-Ni-Al and Co-Ni-Al-Fe Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloy Microstructures and Magnetic Anisotropy Properties of Co-Ni-Al and Co-Ni-Al-Fe ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Abstract This study investigated the microstructure, magnetic anisotropy and the trend of magnetic field induced strain in Co-Ni-Al and Co-Ni-Al-Fe ferromagnetic shape memory alloys. At room temperature, a trunk-type Ã ³ phase precipitates in the matrix phase and the grain boundaries in each specimen. The parent phase in each specimen is identified as L10-type martensitic phase with a (1-11) twinning plane, which prefer growth in (110) orientation after directional solidification. The magnetic anisotropy constant can evaluate 1.13Ãâ"106ergÃ ·cm-3 and 1.36Ãâ"106ergÃ ·cm-3 by Suckmith-Thompson method, respectively. The trend of twin martensitic rearrangement had evaluated by OÃ¢â¬â¢handley model and the result was revealed that the magnetic anisotropy energy in specimens was far greater than Zeeman energy difference across the twin boundaries and the twin martensitic can rearrangement to obtain strains in applied magnetic field. Key words: magnetic anisotropy; ferromagnetic shape memory alloys; twin martensitic; Suckmith-Thompson method; strains in applied magnetic field 1 . Introduction Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMAs) exhibit large magnetic field induced strain (MFIS) and rapid response in the application of an external magnetic field, which was considered as potential candidate materials for magnetic controlled actuators and sensors[1, 2]. Several FSMAs exist including Ni-Mn-Ga[3-8], Co-Ni-Ga[9, 10], Ni-Mn-Al, Ni-Fe-Ga and Co-Ni-Al[11-17] etc. Of these alloys, Ã ²-base Co-Ni-Al alloys was drawn much attention because of their better ductility and low cost of constituent elements[18, 19]. In Co-Ni-Al alloys, dual-phase structure arises is of a great advantage for practical applications, due to tailor of mechanical properties of the Ã ² phase and Ã ³ phase. Generally, Ã ² phase (B2, B.C.C.) in polycrystalline material is extremely hard and brittle, but the presence of Ã ³ phase (A1, F.C.C.) can significantly improve the ductility with alloy[20, 21]. On the other hand, B2-type Ã ² phase has transformed to the L10-type thermo-elastic martensite when temperature cooling below the phase transformation temperature and a large MFIS were found in Co-Ni-Al alloy due to the rearrangement of twin martensite variants in external magnetic field[22, 23]. In MFIS process, the magnetic anisotropy energy can lead the variant rearrangement in order that the magnetic easy axis was aligned parallel to the magnetic field direction when the magnetic anisotropy energy was larger than the energy driving variant rearrangement. So, to obtain the magnetic anisotropy and the trend of twin martensite boundary mobility in FMSAs was very important. In this study, the microstructure and magnetic anisotropy in Co-Ni-Al and Co-Ni-Al-Fe were investigated. Furthermore, in order to establish out a useful direction in ferromagnetic shape memory alloy designs, the trend of magnetic field induced strain with ferromagnetic element Fe added in Co-Ni-Al alloy was discussed. 2. Experimental Procedure The samples with the composition Co1.36Ni1.21Al and Co1.36Ni1.21AlFe0.12 (at%) were prepared by arc-melting furnace using purity elements (>99.99%) under pure argon atmosphere. Ingots were melted four times to ensure the homogeneity and then suction cast into rods with a diameter of 3mm and a length of 70mm. The rods were grown used the liquid metal cooling directional solidification method in Al2O3 crucible at pulling rate of 100Ã ¼m/s and temperature gradients of 800Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¾Ãâ/cm. In order to obtain microstructure of the specimens, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were examined. XRD were examined in the Philips PW170 using CuKÃ ± 1 radiation at a scanning angle of 10Ã °-90Ã ° and a scanning speed of 3Ã °/min. TEM was performed on a Philips CM12 and a Tecnai F20 super twin field emission gun TEM equipped with a Gatan imaging filter system. Specimens for TEM analysis were thinned by twin jet electro-poli shing in a solution of 5% perchloric acid and 95% ethanol. The magnetization was examined for selected samples using the Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (Lake Shore 7407) with a maximum magnetic field of 1.5T at room temperature. 3. Results and Discussion 3.1 Microstructures The microstructure images of specimens are shown in Fig.1. It can be seen that a typical dendritic morphology in the specimens and the trunk phase are the Co-rich Ã ³ phase, which precipitates in the matrix phase and the grain boundaries in each specimen. The Ã ³ phase grows in Co1.36Ni1.21AlFe0.12 alloy is smaller indicating that Fe add in Co-Ni-Al alloy has a trend to formationtion more matrix phase. The matrix phase undergoes the martensitic transformation suggesting that the martensitic transformation start temperature (TMs) higher than room temperature. Fig.2 gives the XRD patterns of Co1.36Ni1.21Al and Co1.36Ni1.21AlFe0.12. The spectrum peaks of the parent phase in each specimen is identified as L10 structure (martensite phase) with the small amount of the coexisting Ã ³ phase (A1 structure), which is in good agreement with the observation of the micrographs. After directional solidification, the martensitic implies preferred (110) orientation in alloy Co1.36Ni1.21Al and Co1.36Ni1.21AlFe0.12 and the spectrum peak of Ã ³ phase appears less orientation when Fe add in Co1.36Ni1.21Al alloy. Fig.3 shows TEM photographs and selected-area diffraction pattern of samples. It can be seen that martensite, whose transformation from Ã ² phase, is tetragonal L10 structure. The twin martensite is spearhead-shaped, which is the presence of many black and white pinstripes regularly piled up. Fig.3b and 3d shows the electron diffraction patterns exhibiting the structural feature of the specimens. The patterns were taken with an incident electron beam parallel to the  zone axis and the primary diffraction spots are indexed for the L10 structure twin martensite with a (1-11) twinning plane. 3.2 Magnetic anisotropy The magnetizations of specimens as a function of applied magnetic field at room temperature are shown in Fig.4. The measured M-H curves for the a-plane direction can be saturated easily, while the magnetization for the c-axis is hardly saturated. Obviously, a-plane is the easy direction to magnetic, but c-axis is the hard direction. The value of coercivity (Hc) and saturation magnetization (Ms) with Co1.36Ni1.21Al alloy was about 102Oe and 43.72emu/g, respectively. Compared, the value of Ms was promoted from 43.72emu/g to 57.64emu/g and the Hc decrease from 102Oe to 53Oe in Co1.36Ni1.21AlFe0.12. The axial magnetic anisotropy constant Ku of the sample was determined by the magnetization curves measured along and perpendicular the axis. The magnetic anisotropy energy Em was calculated by equation (1): EmÃ¢â°ËK2Ã¢â¬â¢sin2Ã ¸+K4Ã¢â¬â¢sin4Ã ¸ (1) Where Ã ¸ is the angle between the magnetization and the c-axis; K2Ã¢â¬â¢ is the second-order magnetic anisotropy constant and K4Ã¢â¬â¢ is the fourth-order magnetic anisotropy constant. The value of magnetic anisotropy constant Ku is approximately equal to the sum of K2Ã¢â¬â¢ and K4Ã¢â¬â¢ as shows in equation (2): KuÃ¢â°ËK2Ã¢â¬â¢+ K4Ã¢â¬â¢ (2) After correcting the demagnetizing field, the value of magnetic anisotropy constant K2Ã¢â¬â¢, K4Ã¢â¬â¢ and Ku can evaluate by the Suckmith-Thompson method using the equation (3): 2 K2Ã¢â¬â¢/Ms2+(4K4Ã¢â¬â¢/Ms4)M2=He/M (3) Where Ms is the saturation intensity; M is the magnetization and He is the effective field. From equation (3), the anisotropy constants can obtain from the graph of M2 and He/M: the slope being is 4 K4Ã¢â¬â¢/Ms4 and the intercept of Y-axis is 2 K2Ã¢â¬â¢/Ms2. Fig.5 is the graph of M2 and He/M of specimens Co1.36Ni1.21Al and Co1.36Ni1.21AlFe0.12 and the values of magnetic anisotropy constant K2Ã¢â¬â¢, K4Ã¢â¬â¢ and Ku were calculated in Table 1. However, the value of Ku in Co1.36Ni1.21Al and Co1.36Ni1.21AlFe0.12 approach same level compare with tradition FSMAs (NiMnGa[26, 27], Ku=-2.03Ãâ"106 ergÃ ·cm-3) and the lager value of Ku can provide greater magnetic anisotropy energy in applied magnetic field. 3.3 Dimensionless field normalized by anisotropy The magnetic field induced strains in FSMAs are explained by the rearrangement of twin boundaries in variants martensitic phase under the driving force of the Zeeman energy (MsH) difference across the twin boundaries. Twin boundaries with the large magnetic anisotropy can obtain great magnetic anisotropy energy in applied magnetic field. When the magnetic anisotropy energy is bigger than the energy driving variant rearrangement, the magnetic anisotropy energy can lead the variant rearrangement in order that the magnetic easy axis is aligned parallel to the magnetic field direction. The mechanism for twin-boundary motion shows in Fig.6. OÃ¢â¬â¢handley was used dimensionless field parameter ha to express the relationship between Zeeman energy and magnetic anisotropy energy. The dimensionless field parameter ha can evaluate by the equation (4): ha=MsH/2Ku (4) When haaÃ ¢Ã¢â¬ °Ã ®1, the magnetic anisotropy energy is not sufficient to overcome Zeeman energy and the material canÃ¢â¬â¢t obtain strain in applied magnetic field. In order to make sure trend of magnetic field induced strain of specimens, the values of ha were calculated and the result list in Table 2. Obviously, the values of ha in Co1.36Ni1.21Al and Co1.36Ni1.21AlFe0.12 alloys was smaller than 1. The magnetic anisotropy energy of specimens is far greater than Zeeman energy difference across the twin boundaries and the twin martensitic can rearrangement to obtain large strains in applied magnetic field. Furthermore, Fe added in Co-Ni-Al alloy can enhance the magnetic anisotropy and reduce the dimensionless field parameter ha as shows in Table 2. It was suggesting that Co1.36Ni1.21AlFe0.12 has lager trend of twin boundary rearrangement and it is a meaningful direction for material design of FSMAs. 4. Conclusion In order to obtain large magnetic field induced strain of MFIS at room temperature in Co1.36Ni1.21Al and Co1.36Ni1.21AlFe0.12 alloys, the microstructure and magnetic anisotropy and the trend of rearrangement twin boundary were investigated. A trunk-type Ã ³ phase precipitates in the matrix phase and the grain boundaries in each specimen. The parent phase in each specimen is identified as L10-type martensitic phase with a (1-11) twinning plane, which prefer growth in (110) orientation after directional solidification. The magnetic anisotropy constant Ku of Co1.36Ni1.21Al and Co1.36Ni1.21AlFe0.12 alloys were evaluated to be 1.13Ãâ"106ergÃ ·cm-3 and 1.36Ãâ"106ergÃ ·cm-3, respectively. The trend of twin martensitic rearrangement has evaluated using OÃ¢â¬â¢handley model. The result is revealed that the dimensionless field parameter ha of Co1.36Ni1.21Al and Co1.36Ni1.21AlFe0.12 was smaller than 1 and the magnetic anisotropy energy in specimens was far greater than Zeeman energy difference across the twin boundaries. In this condition, twin martensitic can rearrangement and obtains large strains in applied magnetic field. Refernces  Fujita A, Gejima F, Ishida K. Magnetic properties and large magnetic-field-induced strains in off-stoichiometric Ni-Mn-Al Heusler alloys[J]. Applied Physics Letters. 2000, 77 (19 ): 3054-3056.  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Saturday, January 18, 2020
1. Given that the setting for the story was during Nazi Germany, the fact that Death is telling the story is no surprise. Since many lives were taken and lost during the Holocaust, the presence of Death adds an eerie feeling to the story. Death enhances the feeling of the story by giving us an interesting point of view of what he saw during the Holocaust. In the story, instead of enjoying picking up bodies, he tells the reader that he is tired of his job and complains about the constant workloads that war puts on his shoulders.Further more, there is even a part in the book where death indicates that he is loyal to HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s causes since he took up hundreds and thousands of lives. Death attempts to resist Liesel because his hands are full. However he is unable to get away from her tragic life story, as she gives to her family and friends, and her interest in books. The ugly and beautiful thing about the characters is the war surrounded by humans is ugly and the love and friendsh ip to survive during bombs and bullets is the beauty. 2. LieselÃ¢â¬â¢s obsession with stealing books is her revenge plan to get back at Hitler.Through the book she learns that words are powerful and very significant. She learns that books and their contents can show her the path to freedom from. She noticed that Hitler used word to get Germany against anyone who was different; consequently, she used those words to destroy what Hitler made. She noticed that Hitler used convincing words to push Germany against anyone who did not fit his list of likes. Accordingly, she used the same type of powerful, bold and convincing types of words to get back at him. 3. DeathÃ¢â¬â¢s allure with the colors of the sky functions shows great importance in the form of imagery.It helps portray the mood of the story, as well as create an atmosphere. By focusing on the skyÃ¢â¬â¢s colors at the time of human death, Death suggests that there is a connection between the human death and the climate. The idea of each person that dies has there own color of sky represents a vision of a universe which cares about humans, and isn't indifferent to them. For Death, the colors are so edible, and he sucks on them for distraction while on the job. 4. Liesel steals The Grave DiggerÃ¢â¬â¢s Handbook after her brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s burial. She takes the book in as a reminder of her brother, and later sees it as reminder of her mother.In spite of the book being stolen and not to be discovered by Hans, the title of the book was a part of LieselÃ¢â¬â¢s past that she wanted to keep secret therefore she hid the book under the mattress. When Hans first discovers the book, his reaction was quite surprising but later he discovered that it was a great deal for Liesel. Later Hans goes through the trouble of teaching Liesel how to read. The second book she steals is The Shcoulder Shrug from the bon fire on HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s Birthday. The reason why she steals the book is because she comes to know that her pa rent's were taken away because they were communists.This act of book thievery becomes a way Liesel can get back at Hitler for taking her parent's. The third book she steals is The Whistler, from IlsaÃ¢â¬â¢s library. The day that Ilsa refuses to take the laundry from Liesel, Ilsa offers the book to Liesel, but Liesel refuses it. Later, Liesel goes back to IlsaÃ¢â¬â¢s house with Rudy to steal the book as an act of revenge against Ilsa. However, Liesel feels guilty for stealing the book because Ilsa was actually giving her the book and becomes grateful. Liesel writes a letter to Ilsa indicating that she will no longer steal from the library.As a result, Liesel is gifted a journal by Ilsa where Liesel is able to write her own stories. Stealing the book from the mayorÃ¢â¬â¢s house lead to a friendship with the mayorÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. Each night, Liesel goes down to the basement to write. Himmel Street was bombed. LieselÃ¢â¬â¢s mama and papa and Rudy were dead due to the bombings. Ho wever Liesel was saved because she was in the basement, perfecting her book. In a way, words saved her life. 5. Some people find it difficult to go through a day, not being in an angry mood. The reason why Rosa became irritated was because she lost her job as a laundry maid.The way RosaÃ¢â¬â¢s life is continuing makes her an angry and bitter woman. 6. Hans tthroughout the novel proves to be Ã¢â¬Å"worth a lot. Ã¢â¬ He ends up earning Liesel's trust and love by being the one who is there for her when she had nightmares every night. He also stayed with Liesel for many hours playing his accordion and teaching her how to roll cigarettes. Not only that, he taught Liesel how to read and was the only one to believe that Liesel had great potential. Liesel had a great attachment with Hans that made him feel like Liesel was his child.Normally, Trudy only comes to visit during the holidays for a day or two while Hans Junior detest his father for not being in the Hitler group. Liesel is th e only one that shows love, affection, and the true feeling of a daughter/child to Hans. Hans feels special when he is with her. On the other hand, Rosa appears to be a heartless bad-mouth woman. However, she is a very caring person but just doesn't show it. The hard times of poverty and working for the rich made Rosa a bitter woman. So instead of saying Ã¢â¬Å"I love youÃ¢â¬ to Liesel, she calls Liesel a Saumensch.However, Rosa also proves her love towards her foster daughter by gifting Max's journal to Liesel. Towards the end of the book, Liesel comes to realize how beautiful Rosa really is. For example, when Hans leaves for the war, Rosa stays up all night holding on to Hans' accordion and is quiet. Liesel learns that Rosa really does love Hans and is devoted to him. 7. Liesel sees love with abandonment because her mother left her in order to keep her safe. She understood why she was abandoned by her mother when Max abandons her, then Hans. They did not leave her because they didn't want to be with her but because they had to.Therefore, she was abandoned by circumstance because at the end, everybody leaves her because of the bomb. 8. Hans is guilty for Erik's life because Erik saved Hans life. During that time, Hans was a young person who didn't have his own family yet while Erik had a wife and a son. Hans Channels his guilt by trying to save others. Max also feels guilty because he constantly asking for Hans and Rosa's forgiveness for putting their lives in danger. Ã¢â¬Å"Living was living. The price was guilt and shame. Ã¢â¬ Erik feels guilty because he knows it's not fair for him to ask them for food, living place, and possibly their lives.He feels guilty for asking and the response of yes. He feels a little ashamed that he can't do these things for himself like he used to. 9. Liesel and Max are both haunted by their dreams. Liesel on one hand, dreams of her dead brother. On the other hand, Max dreams about the way he left his family. They're both victims of Hitler's hate. Max gives Liesel's life purpose because he helps her learn the power of words. As the days pass, Liesel and Max become really good friends. Max later gives Liesel Ã¢â¬Å"The Stanover ManÃ¢â¬ for her birthday to show his appreciation for her friendship.The significance of the story is that he writes his little book with the pages of Hitler's Mein Kampf. 10. To face Hitler it takes an immense amount of courage. During the time of the Holocaust Germany was a very dangerous place to live for people who opposed the Nazi party. Since the supporters of the Nazi party were the majority in Germany at that point in time, they also had an enormous amount of power. They could destroy the lives of people who opposed them in merely seconds. Thus, to oppose the NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s while living in Germany took a large amount of courage.In the HubermannÃ¢â¬â¢s house everyone showed the trait of courage tthroughout the book. For example, Rosa and Hans showed courage by hiding a Jewish person in their basement. Doing at the time could have cost both Rosa and Hans their lives. In addition Liesel shows courage by keeping the secret of the Jew in their basement. This can be called a courageous act because; if they were caught Liesel would have died along with her family. Rudy also showed an example of courageousness, not many boys have the courage to ask a girl to kiss them. 11. Liesel and Rudy started out as being neighbors and soon became best friends.Rudy loves Liesel and continuously tries to get her to kiss him. Though the truth is that Rudy is afraid of the day she will actually kiss him. On other hand, Liesel simply sees Rudy as a brother in the beginning. The two continue to be friends and steal together as well as go through tough times through out the book. Towards the end, when Liesel confesses to Rudy about Max she realizes how much she truly is in love with him. In my opinion Liesel had a hard time learning her true feelings about Rudy because, of the fear of abandonment by Death like her brother. Deaths statement describes that Rudy truly loves Liesel.
Friday, January 10, 2020
Here's What I Know About How to Compose a Research Paper Clearly, the precise methodology varies dependent upon the precise area and sort of experiment. Provided that you have planned an excellent structure for those pieces of a research paper, both methods are equally nice and it's a matter of preference. When working on body paragraphs you may observe they go in various directions. There is ordinarily no significance to a numerical purchase. The War Against How to Compose a Research Paper An article desires the reflection of own thoughts and thoughts. Importance of a great introduction is not possible to overestimate, as you won't ever have another opportunity to generate a positive first impression. Possessing a written guarantee is a vital point. The intent of a rough draft may be to acquire your own thoughts written down. When you compose a research paper you build upon what you know about the topic and make a deliberate attempt to learn what experts know. There are many providers to depend on. Observing the research is total, you should create the essay. Research Paper isn't a task for a single day. Go on for more research, if you believe it's needed. A research demands logical and critical thinking, and analysis. Essay writing is only a project a good deal of the men don't like performing the exact same. If you think writing of a research paper is simply about gathering relevant materials and copy-pasting then in another document, you're mistaken. Any essay should supply a productive evaluation of the region in issue. Writing papers on your very own own can be even more hard. Research paper peer editing could be great for you in case that you would like to recognize flaws. 1 habit that's getting more common, particularly with online papers, is to incorporate a reference to your paper on the last page. Many professors will suggest a specific format in order that they know precisely where to find everything in a paper they are grading. You have to adhere to the correct format and double-check all the requirements to be certain you get a great grade Before you continue to file your paper to the university or professor, it's far better to test it for proofing errors. Make certain that your paper has an impact on readers and express your private opinion on the discipline. Remember you must compose your newspaper exclusively about possessions you would like. When you submit your paper, make sure to keep a safe copy. The perfect way to begin your paper is to supply just a little something for the reader to linger on to. Your satirical composition is likely to make extra brownie points with an acceptable name. The introduction is the initial paragraph and might be the main portion of the paper. Below you will discover the most relevant strategies for writing a fantastic reesarch paper introduction. When you're planning to get the essay, nearly all of your intent is to track down an original customized essay from your top customized essay writing business. What's more, the quantity of phrases might also vary according to each essay contest. A fast checkin the conclusion of composing your essay can guarantee that you just've employed the appropriate stressed via the short article. The ideal portion about writing an enlightening essay might be the tremendous assortment of topics it is possible to decide from. There are lots of ways to compose an introduction to the identical article. Than to should slog through search far simpler to delve into a topic you enjoy. Make sure you may have a really clear purpose that you want to communicate in your article. A letter of consent will likewise be sent to them together with a sample copy of the questionnaire which will be used, together with the protocol of the researcher. Such a statement gives you the freedom to write about whatever you want. It's possible to try to request for boundless amendments at no charge if you discover the papers doesn't satisfy your very first requisites. Some papers need an abstract, experiment techniques, and results, for example.