Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Assignment 4 Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 9

4 - Assignment Example In addition, Rolian and Gordon (2013, p. 393) acknowledge the conclusions were also based â€Å"on the ability to assign phalanges to a single individual, and to the correct side and digit†. Rolian and Gordon (2013) argue that none of the assignment is secure. According to Rolian and Gordon (2013) the challenge arises from the sample composition and taphonomy of A. L. 333. In the study, Rolian and Gordon focused on Australopithecus afarensis species. The A. L. 333 hominins are majorly teeth and bones fossils discovered in Hadar, Ethiopia. The fossils have been dated to have existed during the Pliocene period. Ardipithecus ramidus is considered to have been the ancestral hominid to Australopithecus afarensis. Consequently the ancestral traits evident in Australopithecus afarensis include bipedalism and tooth morphology. The derived trait from Australopithecus afarensis is in relation to the hand morphology of modern humans. The hominins are also considered to have been bipedal. Rolian and Gordon employed a re-sampling approach in the study. The re-sampling approach comprised a wholesome assemblage of the complete hand elements from Hadar (Rolian and Gordon). Additionally, the approach accounts for the uncertainties associated with identifying phalanges. The uncertainties are due to unidentified taphonomic factors in samples from fossils. The factors led to a bias in the estimation of the manual proportions. Rolian and Gordon re-sampled hand long bone lengths in extant hominoids, as well as in Australopithecus afarensis. Subsequently, Rolian and Gordon obtained the confidence limits for distributions of the manual proportions in the extant hominoids. The analysis procedure adopted by Rolian and Gordon was a four-step procedure. Rolian and Gordon first drew subsamples then subsequently matched the fossil assemblage. Rolian and Gordon then derived the metrics of the manual proportions. Finally, the researchers then derived

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